Published Date: Apr 15 2023
Basic research on liraglutide
Liraglutide is a type of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, mainly used to treat diabetes, but also has good efficacy in treating obesity. Liraglutide is composed of amino acids and is an endogenous peptide secreted by intestinal cells in the human body. It regulates blood sugar according to the level of glucose in the body. The drug is produced using gene recombinant technology and yeast fermentation, and is a clear or almost clear isotonic solution. Liraglutide can effectively improve the function of pancreatic beta cells, promote their rapid repair, and has good hypoglycemic effects. GLP-1 has a protective effect on beta cells. GLP-1 can directly act on pancreatic beta cells, promote transcription of insulin genes, and the synthesis and secretion of insulin. It can also stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of pancreatic beta cells, effectively inhibit pancreatic beta cell apoptosis, and further increase the number of pancreatic beta cells. In addition, GLP-1 can also act on pancreatic alpha cells, strongly inhibit the release of glucagon, and act on pancreatic delta cells to promote the secretion of somatostatin, which can act as a paracrine hormone to participate in the inhibition of glucagon secretion.
Clinical research on liraglutide
After studying the use of liraglutide and another weight loss drug in obese people and observing their treatment efficacy and safety over a long period of time, it was found that liraglutide treatment can effectively reduce patient weight. When patients use liraglutide for 16 weeks, their weight begins to change, and after about 52 weeks of continued use, their weight is significantly reduced. When used with sulfonylurea drugs, it can effectively reduce the fat content in the body and control body weight better. The initial dose of liraglutide for patients is 0.6mg per day. After at least 1 week, the dose should be increased to 1.2mg. The drug is injected once a day and can be injected at any time without regard to meal time. The drug is administered by subcutaneous injection, and the injection site can be the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Muscle injection and intravenous injection should not be performed.
Safety of liraglutide
During the use of this drug, patients may experience some intestinal reactions such as diarrhea and vomiting. After a period of treatment, its hypoglycemic effect on patients is obvious. If used in combination with other drugs to lower blood sugar, it is effective. Limited experience in treating inflammatory bowel disease and diabetic gastroparesis, so this type of patient is not suitable for using this drug. Also, when the drug is used in patients with thyroid or thyroid tumor, it may increase adverse reactions such as thyroid nodules and thyroid tumors, and some clinical trials have reported adverse reactions such as increased blood calcitonin levels. At the same time, this drug should be used less in patients with alcohol consumption or gallstones, and patients with liver and kidney dysfunction should be prohibited from using it to prevent greater harm to patients. The risk of hypoglycemia may increase in patients receiving combination therapy with sulfonylurea drugs. Reducing the dosage of sulfonylurea drugs can reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. Liraglutide has no significant effect on drugs such as atorvastatin, clarithromycin, lisinopril, and digoxin.
Liraglutide is used in obese patients. By suppressing appetite, lowering blood sugar, and promoting weight loss, GLP-1 in liraglutide can affect the central nervous system of the human body, resulting in a sense of satiety, inhibiting gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion, and delaying gastric emptying, thereby promoting weight loss in patients.