Published Date: Nov 22 2022
Semaglutide is a novel glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved semaglutide injection for the control of blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes. Global and Chinese clinical trials have shown that semaglutide has multiple advantages, including strong hypoglycemic effect, significant weight loss, cardiovascular and renal benefits. As the first weekly hypoglycemic drug with both hypoglycemic and cardiovascular indications in China, it has become a popular hypoglycemic drug.
1. Application of Semaglutide
Semaglutide is suitable for glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes: Adults with type 2 diabetes who received metformin and sulfonylureas on the basis of diet control and exercise are still under poor glycemic control.
Semaglutide is indicated to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular adverse events (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke) in adults with type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular disease.
2. Function of Semaglutide
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone secreted by intestinal L cells, acts on islet B cells to promote insulin synthesis and secretion, inhibits the secretion of glucagon in islet A cells, and promotes the secretion of somatostatin in islet D cells. As a paracrine hormone, GLP-1 is involved in inhibiting the secretion of glucagon. GLP-1 receptors are found throughout the body, and in addition to the pancreas, GLP-1 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, heart, and brain play an important role in diabetes, body mass management, and heart protection. In the gastrointestinal tract, GLP-1 slows gastrointestinal motility and increases satiety. In the heart, GLP-1 receptors are primarily located in the sinoatrial node. GLP-1 communicates with the hypothalamus to regulate appetite by increasing satiety signals. However, GLP-1 is easily degraded by enzymes in vivo and has a short half-life of less than two minutes. Through structural modification and modification of GLP-1, GLP-1RA is obtained, which greatly extends the action time. At the same time, it has excellent hypoglycemic effect, as well as good weight reduction and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection effects.